Importance: Elevations in levels of total, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and, to a lesser extent, elevated triglyceride levels are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease in adults.
Objective: To update the 2007 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for lipid disorders in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Evidence review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents 20 years or younger--1 review focused on screening for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and 1 review focused on screening for multifactorial dyslipidemia.
Findings: Evidence on the quantitative difference in diagnostic yield between universal and selective screening approaches, the effectiveness and harms of long-term treatment and the harms of screening, and the association between changes in intermediate outcomes and improvements in adult cardiovascular health outcomes are limited. Therefore, the USPSTF concludes that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined.
Conclusions and recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for lipid disorders in children and adolescents 20 years or younger. (I statement).