Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Aug 16;60:32697.
doi: 10.3402/fnr.v60.32697. eCollection 2016.

Fish Consumption Pattern Among Adults of Different Ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Fish Consumption Pattern Among Adults of Different Ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

Nurul Izzah Ahmad et al. Food Nutr Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary.

Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics' (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day).

Conclusion: Fish consumption was significantly associated with ethnicity, age, marital status, residential area, and years of education of adults in Peninsular Malaysia, and the data collected are beneficial for the purpose of health risk assessment on the intake of contaminants through fish/seafood consumption.

Keywords: Malaysian; consumption pattern; ethnicity; fish; seafood.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The household addresses of study subjects plotted throughout Peninsular Malaysia using Quantum GIS 2.8.1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Number of days (in percentages) in which fish was consumed among the adults of different ethnicities from Peninsular Malaysia, using 3-day records of food consumption as a survey method.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Burger J, Fleischer J, Gochfeld M. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore. Environ Res. 2003;92:254–61. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00015-X. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Norimah AK, Safiah M, Jamal K, Haslinda S, Zuhaida H, Rohida S, et al. Food consumption patterns: findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) Malays J Nutr. 2008;14(1):25–39. - PubMed
    1. York R, Gossard MH. Cross-national meat and fish consumption: exploring the effects of modernization and ecological context. Ecol Econ. 2004;48:293–302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.10.009. - DOI
    1. Moya J, Itkin C, Selevan SG, Rogers JW, Clickner RP. Estimates of fish consumption rates for consumers of bought and self-caught fish in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota and North Dakota. Sci Total Environ. 2008;403:89–98. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.05.023. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Sidhu KS. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;38:336–44. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2003.07.002. - DOI - PubMed
Feedback