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, 244 (6), 1277-1287

Cadmium Activates Both Diphenyleneiodonium- And Rotenone-Sensitive Superoxide Production in Barley Root Tips

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Cadmium Activates Both Diphenyleneiodonium- And Rotenone-Sensitive Superoxide Production in Barley Root Tips

Ladislav Tamás et al. Planta.

Abstract

Mild Cd stress-activated diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive superoxide production is utilized in root morphogenic responses, while severe Cd stress-induced robust rotenone-sensitive superoxide generation may lead to cell and root death. In barley, even a few minute exposure of roots to Cd concentration higher than 10 µM evoked a strong superoxide generation in the root transition zone. This superoxide generation was strongly inhibited by the inhibition of mitochondrial electron flow into complex III in the presence of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Similarly, the superoxide generation induced by antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex III, was considerably reduced by rotenone, suggesting the involvement of complex III also in the severe Cd stress-induced superoxide generation. This severe Cd stress-induced superoxide generation was followed by an extensive cell death in this part of the root tip, which similar to the superoxide generation, was eliminated by rotenone co-treatment. In turn, mild Cd stress-induced diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)-sensitive superoxide generation was observed only in the post-stressed roots, suggesting that it is not directly associated with Cd toxicity. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, markedly inhibited the mild Cd stress-induced radial expansion of root apex, indicating that enhanced DPI-sensitive superoxide production is required for rapid isotropic cell growth. Severe Cd stress, probably through the inhibition of complex III, caused a rapid and robust superoxide generation leading to cell and/or root death. By contrast, mild Cd stress did not evoke oxidative stress, and the enhanced DPI-sensitive superoxide generation is utilized in adaptive morphogenic responses.

Keywords: Cell death; Mitochondria; NADPH oxidase; Reactive oxygen species.

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Cited by 3 PubMed Central articles

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