The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Children's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire in Taiwan

J Pediatr Nurs. 2016 Nov-Dec;31(6):e343-e352. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2016.07.008. Epub 2016 Aug 15.


To develop and examine the validity and reliability of the Children's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire (CSAQ) for school-aged children in Taiwan.

Design and methods: We used a cross-sectional study design with stratified random sampling. Pairs of children and parents were recruited from a school-based sample of third- and fourth-grade students, enrolling 362 child and parent pairs. The content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability of the CSAQ were assessed.

Results: The CSAQ comprised three parts: sleep hygiene, sleep quality, and sleep disturbance. Sleep hygiene showed a moderate intra-class correlation coefficient (0.37-0.66) between children and parents. Results of exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure model for sleep quality with 64.9% of variance and a two-factor structure for sleep disturbance with 57.7% of variance. These two models also demonstrated good fit with the confirmatory factor analysis.

Conclusions: The CSAQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing sleep problems in school-aged children.

Practice implications: Both clinicians and researchers can use the CSAQ to screen or elucidate the children' sleep problems.

Keywords: Children's sleep assessment questionnaire; School-aged child; Sleep problems.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Sleep*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Taiwan