Balloon dilation was attempted in 16 patients, aged 5 months to 19.5 years, with right ventricular outflow obstruction after repair of congenital heart defects. Stenosis of a valved conduit between the pulmonary ventricle and pulmonary artery was present in nine patients with a mean transvalvular peak systolic ejection gradient of 61.6 +/- 21.0 mm Hg and a mean right ventricle to aorta pressure ratio of 0.9 +/- 0.2. Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis was present in seven patients; in five, stenosis was at the anastomotic site after the arterial switch operation with a mean peak systolic ejection gradient of 72.2 +/- 10.6 mm Hg and mean right ventricle to aorta pressure ratio of 0.93 +/- 0.05. The other two patients had stenosis at a previous pulmonary artery band site with a peak systolic ejection gradient of 60 and 65 mm Hg and right ventricle to aorta pressure ratio of 0.75 and 0.72, respectively. Balloon dilation was successful in three of nine patients with a valved conduit; two of them had additional successful balloon dilation of the right pulmonary artery. In five of the nine patients (including one with successful dilation) the conduit was replaced 5.7 +/- 4.5 months after balloon dilation. Balloon dilation was successful in only one of the five patients with supravalvular pulmonary stenosis after the arterial switch operation and partially successful in the two patients with supravalvular pulmonary stenosis at a previous band site. The success rate of balloon dilation of postoperative right ventricular outflow obstruction is much lower than that for other right heart obstructions.