Evaluation of a New Strategy for Clean-Catch Urine in Infants

Pediatrics. 2016 Sep;138(3):e20160573. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0573. Epub 2016 Aug 19.


Background and objectives: A new noninvasive bladder stimulation technique has been described to obtain clean-catch urine (CCU) in infants aged <30 days. Objectives were (1) to determine proportion and predictive factors for successful CCU collections using a stimulation maneuver technique among infants <6 months and (2) to determine the proportion of bacterial contamination with this method.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary pediatric emergency department among infants <6 months needing a urine sample. CCU samples were collected using a standardized stimulation technique. Invasive technique was performed after CCU for three specific conditions. Primary outcomes were proportions of successful CCU specimens and bacterial contamination. We determined associations between successful urine samples and 4 predictive factors (age, sex, low oral intake, and recent voiding).

Results: A total of 126 infants were included (64 boys, median age: 55 days). The CCU procedure was effective in 62 infants (49%; median time: 45 seconds). Infants 0 to 29 days; 30 to 59 days, and 60 to 89 days had more successful procedures, compared with infants >89 days (odds ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 4.3 [1.4 to 13.4]; 3.2 [1.2 to 8.4]; and 4.44 [1.5 to 13.3], respectively). The contamination proportion was 16% (95% CI: 8% to 27%) in the CCU group. This proportion was not statistically different compared with the invasive method group (6%, 95% CI: 3% to 15%).

Conclusions: The CCU procedure is a quick and effective noninvasive method in children aged <90 days. Contamination proportions were similar to those reported in the literature for urethral catheterization. Circumstances for which the CCU procedure could be performed are proposed.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Physical Stimulation / methods*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis
  • Urination*
  • Urine Specimen Collection / methods*