Prevalence of Low Cardiovascular Risk Profile Among Diverse Hispanic/Latino Adults in the United States by Age, Sex, and Level of Acculturation: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Aug 20;5(8):e003929. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003929.


Background: Favorable levels of all readily measurable major cardiovascular disease risk factors (ie, low risk [LR]) are associated with lower risks of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Data are not available on LR prevalence among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile among Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States and to examine cross-sectional associations of LR with measures of acculturation.

Methods and results: The multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos examined 16 415 men and women aged 18 to 74 years at baseline (2008-2011) with diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Analyses involved 14 757 adults (mean age 41.3 years; 60.6% women). LR was defined using national guidelines for favorable levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index and by not having diabetes mellitus and not currently smoking. Age-adjusted LR prevalence was low (8.4% overall; 5.1% for men, 11.2% for women) and varied by background (4.2% in men of Mexican heritage versus 15.0% in women of Cuban heritage). Lower acculturation (assessed using proxy measures) was significantly associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women only: Age-adjusted odds ratios of having LR were 1.64 (95% CI 1.24-2.17) for foreign-born versus US-born women and 1.96 (95% CI 1.49-2.58) for women residing in the United States <10 versus ≥10 years.

Conclusions: Among diverse US Hispanic/Latino adults, the prevalence of a LR profile is low. Lower acculturation is associated with higher odds of a LR profile among women but not men. Comprehensive public health strategies are needed to improve the cardiovascular health of US Hispanic/Latino adults.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease prevention; cardiovascular disease risk factors; low risk.

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Anticholesteremic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy
  • Hypercholesterolemia / ethnology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Smoking / ethnology
  • United States
  • Young Adult


  • Anticholesteremic Agents