INTRODUCTION Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy related to permanent gluten intolerance, characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms as well as nongastrointestinal symptoms, including neurologic ones. The presence of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and antiganglioside M1 (anti-GM1) antibodies has been demonstrated for neurologic conditions as well as immune disorders with neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of IL-10, NSE, and anti-GM1 antibodies in the course of CD and their correlation with changes in electrogastrography (EGG) and with heart rate variability (HRV). PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 68 participants: 34 patients with CD and 34 healthy individuals. We assessed the concentrations of IL-10 and NSE as well as the presence of anti-GM1 antibodies in serum. We investigated correlations between the concentrations of IL-10, NSE, and anti-GM1 antibodies and the results of EGG and HRV. RESULTS Patients with CD had a higher level of anti-GM1 antibodies than controls (1.38 ng/ml [0.98-2.03 ng/ml] vs 0.81 ng/ml [0.35-1.15 ng/ml]). Median IL-10 concentrations in patients with CD differed significantly from those in controls (7 pg/ml [4.33-11.48 pg/ml] vs 4.27 pg/ml [2.44-7 pg/ml]; P = 0.010). In HRV analysis, a positive correlation between IL-10 concentrations and very low frequency spectrum was observed (r = 0.63; P = 0.003). There was no correlation between the concentrations of IL-10, NSE, or anti-GM1 antibodies and EGG parameters. CONCLUSIONS Chronic inflammation in the course of CD may lead to autonomic nervous system impairment and development of neurologic disorders. Therefore, anti-GM1 antibodies and IL-10 may be considered as markers of nervous system impairment in the course of CD.