Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration. In vitro proximal tubule epithelial cell (NRK-52E) model showed that LMWF dose-dependently inhibited overexpression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by albumin overload. These experimental results indicate that LMWF protects against albumin overload caused renal injury by inhibiting inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which suggests that LMWF could be a promising candidate drug for preventing CKD.