Ilex paraguariensis crude extract acts on protection and reversion from damage induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide in human erythrocytes: a comparative study with isolated caffeic and/or chlorogenic acids

J Sci Food Agric. 2017 May;97(7):2007-2014. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8001. Epub 2016 Oct 3.


Background: Studies comparing the effects of phytochemicals under different regimens of exposure are necessary to give a better indication about their mechanism(s) of protection. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the preventive (pre-incubation), protective (co-incubation) and/or remediative (post-incubation) activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids, in comparison with Ilex paraguariensis crude extract, against t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced damage to human erythrocytes.

Results: We found that both caffeic and chlorogenic acids were able to prevent and revert the hemolysis associated with t-BHP exposure. By contrast, isolated compounds (alone or in combination) presented no effect on basal and/or t-BHP-induced non-protein thiol (NPSH) oxidation or production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBBARS). In turn, I. paraguariensis extract was effective to prevent, protect and revert the hemolysis associated with t-BHP exposure. Moreover, I. paraguariensis significantly protects and reverts t-BHP-induced NPSH oxidation and TBARS production.

Conclusions: We have found that I. paraguariensis extract acts better with respect to the protection and reversion of t-BHP-associated changes, whereas isolated compounds are more active in preventing and reverting t-BHP pro-hemolytic action. Moreover, our data suggest that the pro-hemolytic activity of t-BHP may occur via mechanism(s) other(s) than lipid peroxidation and/or NPSH oxidation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: Ilex paraguariensis; NPSH oxidation; hemolysis; lipid peroxidation.

MeSH terms

  • Caffeic Acids / isolation & purification
  • Caffeic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Chlorogenic Acid / isolation & purification
  • Chlorogenic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Erythrocytes / cytology
  • Erythrocytes / drug effects*
  • Hemolysis / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Ilex paraguariensis / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • tert-Butylhydroperoxide / toxicity*


  • Caffeic Acids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • tert-Butylhydroperoxide