In recent years, the survival of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias has improved due to improvements in anticancer and supportive therapy. However, the risk of secondary malignancies has increased, thought to be due to a combination of environmental and disease-related factors, as well as treatment. In the present review, we evaluate the risk of secondary malignancies in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Patients with MGUS appear to have a higher risk of developing myeloid malignancies such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In patients with MM, the risk of AML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and some solid tumors appears increased. Finally, in WM patients, there seems to be increased risk of AML, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, thyroid cancer and melanoma.
Keywords: MGUS; Myeloma; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; secondary malignancies.