Objectives: The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and clinical features of gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophilic inflammation among pediatric patients with intestinal failure (IF).
Methods: Medical records of all patients studied in our institution's IF program who underwent GI endoscopy over a 15-year period were reviewed, and clinical, pathologic, nutrition, and laboratory data collected.
Results: One hundred five patients underwent 208 GI endoscopic procedures with biopsy. The overall prevalence of eosinophilic inflammation, defined as increased eosinophils in at least 1 tissue type on at least 1 endoscopy, was 39 of 105 (37%). The tissue-specific prevalence of eosinophilic inflammation ranged widely, with the colon/rectosigmoid being the most common (18/68, 26%), followed by the esophagus (17/83, 20%), ileum (9/54, 17%), duodenum (4/83, 5%), and stomach (3/83, 4%). Higher peripheral eosinophil count and hematochezia were associated with eosinophilic inflammation in the colon (P = 0.002 and 0.0004, respectively). The use of a strict elemental diet for 3 months before endoscopy was not associated with a decreased frequency of eosinophilic inflammation in any tissue.
Conclusions: Eosinophilic inflammation is a common histopathological finding in patients with IF. Colonic eosinophilic inflammation is associated with clinical symptoms of GI blood loss, and peripheral eosinophilia, and was not abrogated by a strict elemental diet.