Protective Effects of Bifidobacterium on Intestinal Barrier Function in LPS-Induced Enterocyte Barrier Injury of Caco-2 Monolayers and in a Rat NEC Model

PLoS One. 2016 Aug 23;11(8):e0161635. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161635. eCollection 2016.


Zonulin protein is a newly discovered modulator which modulates the permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier by disassembling intercellular tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ is associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It has been shown bifidobacterium could protect the intestinal barrier function and prophylactical administration of bifidobacterium has beneficial effects in NEC patients and animals. However, it is still unknown whether the zonulin is involved in the gut barrier dysfunction of NEC, and the protective mechanisms of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function are also not well understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function, zonulin regulation, and TJ integrity both in LPS-induced enterocyte barrier injury of Caco-2 monolayers and in a rat NEC model. Our results showed bifidobacterium markedly attenuated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in paracellular permeability in the Caco-2 monolayers treated with LPS (P < 0.01). Compared with the LPS group, bifidobacterium significantly decreased the production of IL-6 and TNF-α (P < 0.01) and suppressed zonulin release (P < 0.05). In addition, bifidobacterium pretreatment up-regulated occludin, claudin-3 and ZO-1 expression (P < 0.01) and also preserved these proteins localization at TJ compared with the LPS group. In the in vivo study, bifidobacterium decreased the incidence of NEC from 88 to 47% (P < 0.05) and reduced the severity in the NEC model. Increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the ileum of NEC rats were normalized in bifidobacterium treated rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, administration of bifidobacterium attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability (P < 0.01), decreased the levels of serum zonulin (P < 0.05), normalized the expression and localization of TJ proteins in the ileum compared with animals with NEC. We concluded that bifidobacterium may protect against intestinal barrier dysfunction both in vitro and in NEC. This protective effect is associated with inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, suppression of zonulin protein release and improvement of intestinal TJ integrity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bifidobacterium / physiology*
  • Biomarkers
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Cholera Toxin / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enterocolitis, Necrotizing / metabolism*
  • Enterocolitis, Necrotizing / microbiology*
  • Enterocolitis, Necrotizing / pathology
  • Enterocytes / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Ileum / metabolism
  • Ileum / pathology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology
  • Permeability
  • Rats
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tight Junctions / metabolism
  • Tight Junctions / pathology


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • zonulin
  • Cholera Toxin

Grant support

This research project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 30200300; Project recipient: Wei Hong). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.