Objective: Hypoxic brain injury is the largest contributor to disability and mortality after cardiac arrest. We aim to identify electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics that can predict outcome on cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM).
Methods: We retrospectively examined clinical, EEG, functional outcome at discharge, and in-hospital mortality for 373 adult subjects with return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. Poor outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score of 3-5. Pure suppression-burst (SB) was defined as SB not associated with status epilepticus (SE), seizures, or generalized periodic discharges.
Results: In-hospital mortality was 68.6% (N=256). Presence of both unreactive EEG background and SE was associated with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% (95% confidence interval: 0.96-1) and a false-positive rate (FPR) of 0% (95% CI: 0-0.11) for poor functional outcome. A prediction model including demographics data, admission exam, presence of status epilepticus, pure SB, and lack of EEG reactivity had an area under the curve of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.95) for poor functional outcome prediction, and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.98) for in-hospital mortality. Presence of pure SB (N=87) was confounded by anesthetics use in 83.9% of the cases, and was not an independent predictor of poor functional outcome, having a FPR of 23% (95% CI: 0.19-0.28).
Conclusions: An unreactive EEG background and SE predicted poor functional outcome and in-hospital mortality in cardiac arrest patients undergoing TTM. Prognostic value of pure SB is confounded by use of sedative agents, and its use on prognostication decisions should be made with caution.
Keywords: Burst–suppression; Cardiac arrest; EEG; EEG background reactivity; Prognosis; Status epilepticus.
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