Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Aug 24;6:32050.
doi: 10.1038/srep32050.

Mangifera Sylvatica (Wild Mango): A New Cocoa Butter Alternative

Free PMC article

Mangifera Sylvatica (Wild Mango): A New Cocoa Butter Alternative

Sayma Akhter et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article


Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Global and Local Distribution of Wild Mango (Mangifera sylvatica).
Spatial position of the site locations were plotted in global geo-political boundary available from Esri ( and species presence locations were plotted in administrative map of Bangladesh using ArcGIS (version 10.3) software.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Total saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content; Fig. 1. (b) Fatty acid profile of in WMB, DMB and CB (CBD and CBND).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Physical properties of butter samples (a) saponification value (b) glycerol (c) free fatty acid (d) iodine value (e) moisture content; (f) refractive index; (g) specific gravity (h) major triglyceride percentage.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Melting profile of different butter using DSC.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Collection, processing and preparation of wild mango butter from M. sylvatica (a) Mangifera sylvatica tree (b) fruit of Mangifera sylvatica with big kernel in left and fruit of Mangifera indica with big pulp in right (c) seed of Mangifera sylvatica (d) kernel of Mangifera sylvatica (e) Mangifera sylvatica seeds after retting (f) chopping the seeds (g) sun drying the kernels (h) cocoa butter (i) butter obtained from Mangifera sylvatica (Photo Credit goes to Sayma Akhter).

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Issara U., Zaman W. & Yang T. A. Rambutan seed fat as a potential source of cocoa butter substitute in confectionary product. Int. Food Res. J. 21(1), 25–31 (2014).
    1. Jahurul M. H. A. et al. Cocoa butter replacers from blends of mango seed fat extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and palm stearin. Food Res. Int. 65, 401– 406 (2014a).
    1. Menezes A. G. T. et al. Investigation of chocolate produced from four different Brazilian varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Res. Int. 81, 83–90 (2016).
    1. Shekarchizadeh H., Kadivar M., Ghaziaskar H. S. & Rezayat M. Optimization ofenzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter analog from camel hump fat in supercritical carbondioxide by response surface method (RSM). J. Supercrit. Flu. 49, 209–215 (2009).
    1. Bootello M. A., Hartel R. W., Garcés R., Martínez-Force E. & Salas J. J. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation. Food Chem 134, 1409–1417 (2012). - PubMed

Publication types