Incidence of AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Infections in a Multicohort Analysis of HIV-infected Persons in the United States and Canada, 2000-2010

J Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;214(6):862-72. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw085. Epub 2016 Apr 18.


Background: There are few recent data on the rates of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (OIs) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in care in the United States and Canada.

Methods: We studied HIV-infected participants in 16 cohorts in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) during 2000-2010. After excluding 16 737 (21%) with any AIDS-defining clinical events documented before NA-ACCORD enrollment, we analyzed incident OIs among the remaining 63 541 persons, most of whom received antiretroviral therapy during the observation. We calculated incidence rates per 100 person-years of observation (hereafter, "person-years") with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the first occurrence of any OI and select individual OIs during 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and 2008-2010.

Results: A total of 63 541 persons contributed 261 573 person-years, of whom 5836 (9%) developed at least 1 OI. The incidence rate of any first OI decreased over the 3 observation periods, with 3.0 cases, 2.4 cases, and 1.5 cases per 100 person-years of observation during 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and 2008-2010, respectively (Ptrend<.001); the rates of most individual OIs decreased as well. During 2008-2010, the leading OIs included Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, esophageal candidiasis, and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium kansasii infection.

Conclusions: For HIV-infected persons in care during 2000-2010, rates of first OI were relatively low and generally declined over this time.

Keywords: AIDS-related opportunistic infections; CD4+ T-lymphocyte count; HIV cohort studies; combination antiretroviral therapy; epidemiology; incidence; prophylaxis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology*
  • Adult
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Survival Analysis
  • United States / epidemiology

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