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. 2016 Aug 10;7:346.
doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00346. eCollection 2016.

Cerebro- And Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is There a Gender Effect?

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Free PMC article

Cerebro- And Cardio-vascular Responses to Energy Drink in Young Adults: Is There a Gender Effect?

Cathríona R Monnard et al. Front Physiol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background and purpose: Energy drinks (EDs) are suspected to induce potential adverse cardiovascular effects and have recently been shown to reduce cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in young, healthy subjects. Gender differences in CBFV in response to EDs have not previously been investigated, despite the fact that women are more prone to cardiovascular disturbances such as neurocardiogenic syncope than men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore gender differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to EDs.

Methods: We included 45 subjects in a retrospective analysis of pooled data from two previous randomized trials carried out in our laboratory with similar protocols. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, impedance cardiography, transcranial Doppler, and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) measurements were made for at least 20 min baseline and for 80 min following the ingestion of 355 mL of a sugar-sweetened ED. Gender and time differences in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular parameters were investigated.

Results: CBFV was significantly reduced in response to ED, with the greatest reduction observed in women compared with men (-12.3 ± 0.8 vs. -9.7 ± 0.8%, P < 0.05). Analysis of variance indicated significant time (P < 0.01) and gender × time (P < 0.01) effects. The percentage change in CBFV in response to ED was independent of body weight and etCO2. No significant gender difference in major cardiovascular parameters in response to ED was observed.

Conclusions: ED ingestion reduced CBFV over time, with a greater reduction observed in women compared with men. Our results have potential implications for women ED consumers, as well as high-risk individuals.

Keywords: beat-to-beat measurements; caffeinated beverage; cerebral blood flow velocity; red bull; women.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(A,B) Time course changes for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) after ingestion of 355 ml of an energy drink in 23 men (open circle) and 22 women (closed rhombus). *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.005, statistically significant differences over time from baseline values using repeated measures ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. (C,D) Mean changes over 80 min post-drink and presented as a percentage change relative to baseline values in men and women. #P < 0.05, statistically significant difference between CBFV responses in men and women using an unpaired t-test.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Linear regression analyses of (A) absolute changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2), (B) percentage changes in CBFV and etCO2, (C) absolute change in CBFV and body weight, (D) percentage changes in CBFV and body weight, (E) absolute changes in CBFV and BMI, (F) percentage changes in CBFV and BMI in 23 men (blue circle) and 22 women (red circle). Regression lines for all subjects (black), men (blue), and women (red) are highlighted. *P < 0.05, statistically significant correlation.

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