A Long-Term Follow-Up Investigation of Endobronchial Valves in Emphysema (the LIVE Study): Study Protocol and Six-Month Interim Analysis Results of a Prospective Five-Year Observational Study

Respiration. 2016;92(2):118-26. doi: 10.1159/000448119. Epub 2016 Aug 24.


Background: Randomized controlled trials indicate that significant lung volume reduction (ELVR) can be obtained with Zephyr® valves by occluding the target lobe in the absence of collateral ventilation, leading to relevant functional benefits in advanced emphysema patients.

Objectives: To observe the long-term effects of endobronchial valve (EBV) implantation in emphysema patients screened by Chartis assessment in the context of daily pulmonology practice.

Methods: The LIVE Study is a prospective, observational, open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial conducted in Germany. 498 patients included in this interim analysis were enrolled between July 2, 2012, and September 16, 2014. The 6-month follow-up visit data were recorded for 343 patients (safety population), and complete data sets were available for 321 treated patients (efficacy population) - 56.4% male, age: 64.5 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted: 31.3%, residual volume (RV) % predicted: 252%.

Results: Efficacy results at 6 months: FEV1 (l) increased by +100 ml (+11.9%), RV (l) decreased by -0.42 liter, and the COPD Assessment Test score decreased by -3.14 points (each p < 0.0001). Safety outcomes: A total of 66 adverse events (AEs; with 50 serious AEs - SAEs) were reported in 55 patients (16%) during the hospital stay for EBV placement - pneumothorax (35 cases), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation (5 cases), and pneumonia (4 cases). During the subsequent 6-month follow-up window, 170 SAEs were recorded in 125 patients (36.4%), predominantly COPD exacerbation (53% of the SAEs).

Conclusion: The current results of this large-scale German observational study performed in the context of daily practice further demonstrates that ELVR with Zephyr® valves is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in advanced emphysema.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bronchoscopy / adverse effects
  • Bronchoscopy / instrumentation*
  • Emphysema / therapy*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects
  • Prostheses and Implants / statistics & numerical data*