Photobiomodulation (Laser and LED) on Sternotomy Healing in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up

Photomed Laser Surg. 2017 Jan;35(1):24-31. doi: 10.1089/pho.2016.4143. Epub 2016 Aug 25.


Background and objective: This study aimed at analyzing the healing effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (λ620 nm, 6 J/cm2) and light-emitting diode (LED) therapy (λ640 nm, 6 J/cm2) on the longitudinal sternotomy incisions of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Materials and methods: 120 volunteers were electively submitted to CABG and were randomly allocated into four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, laser (λ of 640 nm and spatial average energy fluency [SAEF] of 1.06 J/cm2), and LED (λ of 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF of 0.24 J/cm2). Laser and LED groups were irradiated from the second to eighth day postsurgery, and sternotomy incision was photographically registered. Then, participants were also separated into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups, according to their fasting blood glucose test before surgery. Three researchers blindly analyzed the incision photographs to determine hyperemia and wound closure at the first day of hospital discharge (eighth postoperative day).

Results: LLLT and LED groups had similarly less hyperemia and less incision bleeding or dehiscence (p ≤ 0.005) and the outcomes were also analogous between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, which indicates no difference observed in an intragroup analysis (p ≥ 0.05).

Conclusions: With the present therapy parameters, it may be assumed that both coherent light (laser) and non-coherent light (LED) are effective in promoting sternotomy and healing acceleration, which are evident on the eighth day postsurgery.

Keywords: cardiac surgery; light-emitting diode; low-level laser therapy; wound healing.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis*
  • Laser Therapy*
  • Light*
  • Low-Level Light Therapy / methods*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sternotomy*
  • Wound Healing / physiology*