In vitro modulation of inflammatory target gene expression by a polyphenol-enriched fraction of rose oil distillation waste water

Fitoterapia. 2016 Oct:114:56-62. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2016.08.019. Epub 2016 Aug 27.


Classical production of rose oil is based on water steam distillation from the flowers of Rosa damascena. During this process, large quantities of waste water accrue which are discharged to the environment, causing severe pollution of both, groundwater and surface water due to a high content of polyphenols. We recently developed a strategy to purify the waste water into a polyphenol-depleted and a polyphenol-enriched fraction RF20-(SP-207). RF20-(SP-207) and sub-fraction F(IV) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells. Since there is a close interplay between these actions and inflammatory processes, here we focused on the fractions' influence on pro-inflammatory biomarkers. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with RF20-(SP-207), F(IV) (both at 50μg/mL) and ellagic acid (10μM) for 24h under TNF-α (20ng/mL) stimulated and non-stimulated conditions. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular protein secretion of IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was determined by ELISA based assays. RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) significantly decreased the expression and cellular protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1. The diminishing effects on inflammatory target gene expression were slightly less pronounced under TNF-α stimulated conditions. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-(SP-207) from rose oil distillation waste water markedly modified inflammatory target gene expression in vitro, and, therefore, could be further developed as alternative treatment of acute and chronic inflammation.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; ELISA; RT-PCR; Rosa damascena; Waste water.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism
  • Chemokine CCL5 / metabolism
  • Distillation
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology*
  • Rosa / chemistry*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Wastewater / chemistry*


  • CCL2 protein, human
  • CCL5 protein, human
  • CXCL8 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • IL1B protein, human
  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-8
  • Plant Oils
  • Polyphenols
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Waste Water