Dyslipidemias and Elevated Cardiovascular Risk on Lopinavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia

PLoS One. 2016 Aug 31;11(8):e0160306. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160306. eCollection 2016.


Background: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity.

Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data. We estimated the 10-year risks of coronary heart disease with the Framingham, Ramathibodi-Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (Rama-EGAT), and the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) risk equations. We identified patients with LDL above targets defined by the French expert group on HIV and by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IDSA-AACTG).

Results: Of 115 patients enrolled-mean age 40.9 years, 69.2% male, mean time on LPV/r 3.8 years-40 (34.8%) had hypercholesterolemia (> 2.40 g/L), and 69 (60.0%) had low HDL cholesterol (< 0.40 g/L). Twelve (10.5%), 28 (24%) and 9 (7.7%) patients had a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease ≥ 10% according to the Framingham, D:A:D, and Rama-EGAT score, respectively. Fifty one (44.4%) and 36 (31.3%) patients had not reached their LDL target according to IDSA-AACTG and French recommendations, respectively.

Conclusion: Prevalence of dyslipidemia was high in this cohort of HIV-infected Cambodian patients on LPV/r. Roughly one third had high LDL levels requiring specific intervention.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cambodia / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / chemically induced
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dyslipidemias* / blood
  • Dyslipidemias* / chemically induced
  • Dyslipidemias* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Infections* / blood
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Lopinavir / administration & dosage
  • Lopinavir / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Lopinavir

Grant support

This study was founded by Calmette Hospital with support by ESTHER, Ensemble pour une Solidarité Thérapeutique Hospitalière En Réseau, Paris, France, http://www.esther.fr/en/, and the participation of Pfizer, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, http://www.dksh.com.kh/, and Servier, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. These funding organizations had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, or decision to publish this manuscript.