Chromosomes of eukaryotes adopt highly dynamic and complex hierarchical structures in the nucleus. The three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes profoundly affects DNA replication, transcription and the repair of DNA damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of nuclear architecture is fundamental to the study of nuclear processes in eukaryotic cells. Recent years have seen rapid proliferation of technologies to investigate genome organization and function. Here, we review experimental and computational methodologies for 3D genome analysis, with special focus on recent advances in high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (3C) techniques and data analysis.