Dual-Stage Crosslinking of a Gel-Phase Bioink Improves Cell Viability and Homogeneity for 3D Bioprinting

Adv Healthc Mater. 2016 Oct;5(19):2488-2492. doi: 10.1002/adhm.201600636. Epub 2016 Sep 1.


Current bioinks for cell-based 3D bioprinting are not suitable for technology scale-up due to the challenges of cell sedimentation, cell membrane damage, and cell dehydration. A novel bioink hydrogel is presented with dual-stage crosslinking specifically designed to overcome these three major hurdles. This bioink enables the direct patterning of highly viable, multicell type constructs with long-term spatial fidelity.

Keywords: bioink; biomaterials; bioprinting; hydrogels; tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bioprinting / methods*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects*
  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds


  • Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate