Molecular Pathways: Interleukin-35 in Autoimmunity and Cancer

Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Oct 15;22(20):4973-4978. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0743. Epub 2016 Aug 31.


Immunosuppressive functions conferred by regulatory cytokines are important for maintaining homeostasis in immune responses. IL35 has recently emerged as a novel regulator of immune responses. Once thought to be specifically expressed by T regulatory cells, induction of IL35 expression has now been detected in multiple cell types in a variety of diseases, prompting research into regulation of its expression, signaling specificity, target cell populations, and functional outputs. Recent studies have revealed that by directing de novo generation of regulatory T and B cells and inhibiting T effector responses, IL35 plays an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. IL35 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and may exert its function both on antitumor immune responses as well as directly on tumor cells. As such, IL35 is rapidly emerging as a promising biomarker and an attractive cancer therapy target. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 4973-8. ©2016 AACR.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • IL36A protein, human
  • Interleukin-1