One hundred and sixty-two women with respiratory allergy to animal danders and/or pollens were randomly allocated to a diet consisting of either a very low ingestion of hens' egg and cows' milk or a daily ingestion of one hens' egg and about 11 of cows' milk during the last 3 months of pregnancy. One hundred and sixty-three infants were followed prospectively up to 18 months of age when the cumulated incidence of atopic disease in each child was evaluated blindly. No significant differences in the distribution of atopic disease were found among the infants in relation to the maternal diet during late pregnancy. The numbers of skin-prick tests positive to ovalbumin, ovomucoid, beta-lactoglobulin and cows' milk were likewise not influenced by differences in the maternal diet during late pregnancy. Genetic factors rather than maternal diet during the perinatal period probably have a greater effect on the incidence of atopic diseases during early infancy.