Dysexecutive syndrome in Parkinson's disease: the GREFEX study

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2017 Sep;24(5):496-507. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2016.1226248. Epub 2016 Sep 1.


The objectives of this study were to characterize the frequencies and profiles of behavioral and cognitive dysexecutive syndromes in PD (based on validated battery and diagnostic criteria) and to develop a shortened diagnostic battery. Eighty-eight non-demented patients with a diagnosis of PD were examined with an executive validated battery. Using a validated framework, the patients' test results were interpreted with respect to normative data from 780 controls. A dysexecutive syndrome was observed in 80.6% of the patients [95% confidence interval: 71.1-90.1]. The dysexecutive profile was characterized by prominent impairments in deduction, flexibility, inhibition and initiation in the cognitive domain, and by global hypoactivity with apathy and hyperactivity in the behavioral domain. This finding implies that patients with PD should be assessed with cognitive tests and a validated inventory for behavioral dysexecutive syndromes. A shortened battery (based on three cognitive tests and three behavioral domains) provided high diagnostic accuracy.

Keywords: Executive functions; Parkinson’s disease; behavioral disorders; dementia; mild cognitive impairment.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Antiparasitic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology*
  • Executive Function*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / complications
  • Parkinson Disease / diagnosis
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy
  • Parkinson Disease / psychology*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Antiparasitic Agents