Background: Periodontitis and vitamin D deficiency are both highly prevalent in Puerto Rico. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and periodontal disease in Puerto Rican adults.
Methods: A sex-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted on 24 cases of moderate/severe periodontitis and 24 periodontally healthy controls aged 35 to 64 years. Each participant completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination and provided blood sample to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) levels to assess vitamin D status.
Results: A total of 19 matched case-control pairs (28 females, 10 males) completed the study. Mean serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in cases (18.5 ± 4.6 ng/ml) than in controls (24.2 ± 7.1 ng/ml; p = 0.006). Lower odds of periodontal disease were observed per unit of 25 (OH) D level (OR 0.885; 95 % CI 0.785, 0.997; p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Lower serum vitamin D levels are significantly associated with periodontitis in Puerto Rican adults.
Keywords: Hispanic Americans; Periodontitis; Puerto Rico; Vitamin D.