Low Vitamin D Status Strongly Associated With Periodontitis in Puerto Rican Adults

BMC Oral Health. 2016 Sep 2;16(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0288-7.


Background: Periodontitis and vitamin D deficiency are both highly prevalent in Puerto Rico. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and periodontal disease in Puerto Rican adults.

Methods: A sex-, age-, and BMI-matched case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted on 24 cases of moderate/severe periodontitis and 24 periodontally healthy controls aged 35 to 64 years. Each participant completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination and provided blood sample to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) levels to assess vitamin D status.

Results: A total of 19 matched case-control pairs (28 females, 10 males) completed the study. Mean serum 25 (OH) D levels were significantly lower in cases (18.5 ± 4.6 ng/ml) than in controls (24.2 ± 7.1 ng/ml; p = 0.006). Lower odds of periodontal disease were observed per unit of 25 (OH) D level (OR 0.885; 95 % CI 0.785, 0.997; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Lower serum vitamin D levels are significantly associated with periodontitis in Puerto Rican adults.

Keywords: Hispanic Americans; Periodontitis; Puerto Rico; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontitis / complications*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Puerto Rico / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*


  • Vitamin D