Purpose: Surgical treatment of the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is still challenging. We examined the outcome of the resection of osteonecrotic lesions and the influence of potential risk factors on the operative success.
Methods: Seventy six surgical interventions on 40 patients were evaluated in a prospective design with a mean follow-up of 55 weeks. Primary endpoints were: (i) maintenance of the mucosal closure and (ii) decrease of MRONJ stage. Influential variables included preoperative duration, location and diameter of MRONJ, duration and change of antiresorptive therapy, presence of actinomyces species.
Results: Only in 27.6% of cases long-term maintenance of the mucosal closure was achieved. However, stage II patients decreased to stage I in 81% after surgery (p < 0.01) and stage III patients improved in 83% of cases (OR = 8.08; p = 0.07). Stage I patients profited only in 38% by surgical intervention. MRONJ recurrence after surgery was associated with extended preoperative MRONJ duration (p = 0.015). There was no significance of further influential variables, but MRONJ of the upper jaw seems prognostically more favorable.
Conclusion: Advanced stages of MRONJ benefit from surgical treatment, whereas stage I diseases may also be treated conservatively. An early intervention reduces the risk of recurrence.
Keywords: Bisphosphonates; Denosumab; Osteonecrosis; Recurrence; Surgery.
Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.