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. 2013 Nov;1(11):15-26.
doi: 10.14304/SURYA.JPR.V1N11.3.

THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

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Free PMC article

THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

Christian R Salazar. Postdoc J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Measures of periodontal disease severity include: (a) clinical attachment loss (AL), the distance in millimeters between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and bottom of the pocket, (b) periodontal probing depth (PD), the distance in millimeters between the gingival margin and the bottom of the pocket, (c) presence of gingival bleeding, (d) radiographically assessed alveolar bone loss
Figure 2
Figure 2
Proposed pathways through which social and health-impairing behavioral factors might influence periodontal disease severity. Allostatic load could have a direct effect on periodontal disease severity and serve as a mediator for this relationship. (Abbreviation: SES= Socioeconomic status)

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