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. 2017 Oct;36(5):1288-1293.
doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.08.016. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Association of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D With Influenza in Case-Control Study Nested in a Cohort of Japanese Employees

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Association of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D With Influenza in Case-Control Study Nested in a Cohort of Japanese Employees

Akiko Nanri et al. Clin Nutr. .

Abstract

Background & aims: Several intervention studies have examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on influenza or influenza-like illness, but their results have been inconsistent. We prospectively examined the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with influenza among Japanese workers.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of workers in 4 companies in the Kanto and Tokai areas of Japan. Physician-diagnosed influenza that occurred during the winter season was ascertained using a self-administered questionnaire. Two controls matched by company, sex, and age (and checkup date in 1 company) were selected for each case. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at baseline were measured using a competitive protein binding assay. Odds ratio of influenza were estimated by conditional logistic regression with adjustment for covariates.

Results: Of 182 cases and 364 controls, 179 cases and 353 controls with complete data were included in the analysis. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with a significantly lower risk of influenza; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for the highest (≥30 ng/mL) versus lowest category (<20 ng/mL) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.37-1.59) (P for trend = 0.80). In a subgroup of participants without vaccination, vitamin D sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL) was associated with a significantly lower risk of influenza (odds ratio 0.14; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.74).

Conclusions: Overall, circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not appreciably associated with influenza episodes. However, the lower influenza risk associated with vitamin D sufficiency among unvaccinated participants warrants further investigation.

Keywords: Influenza; Japanese; Nested case-control studies; Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D.

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