Effects of air polishing and an amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution to dentin surfaces and periodontal ligament cell survival, attachment, and spreading

Clin Oral Investig. 2017 Jun;21(5):1589-1598. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1950-9. Epub 2016 Sep 5.


Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine morphological changes of dentin surfaces following air polishing or amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution application and to assess their influence on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival, attachment, and spreading to dentin discs in vitro.

Materials and methods: Bovine dentin discs were treated with either (i) Classic, (ii) Plus, or (iii) Perio powder (EMS). Furthermore, Perisolv® a hypochlorite solution buffered with various amino acids was investigated. Untreated dentin discs served as controls. Morphological changes to dentin discs were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human PDL cells were seeded onto the respectively treated discs, and samples were then investigated for PDL cell survival, attachment, and spreading using a live/dead assay, adhesion assay, and SEM imaging, respectively.

Results: Both control and Perisolv®-rinsed dentin discs demonstrated smooth surfaces at low and high magnifications. The Classic powders demonstrated the thickest coating followed by the Powder Plus. The Perio powder demonstrated marked alterations of dentin discs by revealing the potential to open dentinal tubules even before rinsing. Seeding of PDL cells demonstrated an almost 100 % survival rate on all samples demonstrating very high biocompatibility for all materials. Significantly higher PDL cell numbers were observed on samples treated with the Perio powder and the Perisolv® solution (approximately 40 % more cells; p < 0.05). SEM imaging revealed the potential for PDL cells to attach and spread on all surfaces.

Conclusion: The results from the present study demonstrate that cell survival and spreading of PDL cells on root surfaces is possible following either air polishing or application with Perisolv®. Future in vitro and animal testing is necessary to further characterize the beneficial effects of either system in a clinical setting.

Clinical relevance: The use of air polishing or application with Perisolv amino acid buffered hypochlorite solution was effective in treating root surfaces and allowed for near 100 % PDL cell survival, attachment, and spreading onto all root surfaces.

Keywords: Air-Flow; Dentin discs; Dentinal tubules; Periodontal regeneration; Powder spraying.

MeSH terms

  • Air
  • Amino Acids / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / pharmacology
  • Buffers
  • Cattle
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects*
  • Cell Survival / drug effects*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dental Polishing / methods*
  • Dentin / drug effects*
  • Hypochlorous Acid / pharmacology*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Periodontal Ligament / cytology*
  • Surface Properties


  • Amino Acids
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Buffers
  • Hypochlorous Acid