Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 6;11(9):e0161322. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161322. eCollection 2016.


APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genome, Plant
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Hordeum / genetics*
  • Multigene Family
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Phylogeny*
  • Plant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • APETALA2 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • ethylene-responsive element binding protein

Grant support

This research was supported from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31401370 and 31571648), National Barley and Highland Barley Industrial Technology Specially Constructive Foundation of China (CARS-05), Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund (CX(14)2123) and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.