Importance: Tuberculosis remains an important preventable disease in the United States. An effective strategy for reducing the transmission, morbidity, and mortality of active disease is the identification and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent progression to active disease.
Objective: To issue a current US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for LTBI.
Evidence review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for LTBI in asymptomatic adults seen in primary care, including evidence dating from the inception of searched databases.
Findings: The USPSTF found adequate evidence that accurate screening tests for LTBI are available, treatment of LTBI provides a moderate health benefit in preventing progression to active disease, and the harms of screening and treatment are small. The USPSTF has moderate certainty that screening for LTBI in persons at increased risk for infection provides a moderate net benefit.
Conclusions and recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for LTBI in populations at increased risk. (B recommendation).