Cutaneous Manifestations of Mucopolysaccharidoses

Pediatr Dermatol. 2016 Nov;33(6):594-601. doi: 10.1111/pde.12971. Epub 2016 Sep 7.


Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders characterized by deficiencies in specific enzymes involved in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These deficiencies cause excessive metabolites to accumulate in multiple organs. There are eight different MPS disorders, contributing to the wide variation in clinical presentation. Depending on the severity and subtype of the disease, some children live normal life spans, while others have a more grim prognosis. Children with MPS can present with neurologic, behavioral, skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or respiratory abnormalities. Cutaneous manifestations are mostly nonspecific and can include coarse facial features, thickened skin, and excessive hair growth. More specific skin findings include ivory-colored "pebbly" papules found in Hunter syndrome and extensive dermal melanocytosis found in Hurler and Hunter syndromes. Early diagnosis of MPS disorders is extremely important to minimize the progression of the disease and for early initiation of appropriate treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Disease Progression
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Humans
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses / complications*
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses / diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Skin Diseases / etiology*


  • Glycosaminoglycans