Effective activation of macrophages through phagocytic Fcγ receptors (FcγR) has been shown to require selenoprotein K (Selk). We set out to determine whether the FcγR-mediated uptake process itself also requires Selk and potential underlying mechanisms. Macrophages from Selk knockout (KO) mice were less efficient compared with wild-type (WT) controls in engulfing IgG-coated fluorescent beads. Using LC-MS/MS to screen for Selk-binding partners involved in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, we identified Arf-GAP with SH3 domain, ANK repeat, and PH domain-containing protein 2 (ASAP2). Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed interactions between Selk and ASAP2. Selk was required for ASAP2 to be cleaved by calpain-2 within the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain of ASAP2. BAR domains promote membrane association, which was consistent with our data showing that Selk deficiency led to retention of ASAP2 within the phagocytic cup. Because Selk was recently identified as a cofactor for the palmitoylation of certain proteins, we investigated whether ASAP2 was palmitoylated and whether this was related to its cleavage by calpain-2. Acyl/biotin exchange assays and MALDI-TOF analysis showed that cysteine-86 in ASAP2 was palmitoylated in WT, but to a much lesser extent in KO, mouse macrophages. Inhibitors of either palmitoylation or calpain-2 cleavage and rescue experiments with different versions of Selk demonstrated that Selk-dependent palmitoylation of ASAP2 leads to cleavage by calpain-2 within the BAR domain, which releases this protein from the maturing phagocytic cup. Overall, these findings identify ASAP2 as a new target of Selk-dependent palmitoylation and reveal a new mechanism regulating the efficiency of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.
Keywords: immune complex; macrophage; palmitate; phagocytic cup; selenium.
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