Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pregnant women's socio-demographic characteristics, smoking-related variables and psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) and both tobacco consumption and spontaneous quitting at the first trimester of pregnancy. In particular, we wished to examine the contribution of depressive symptoms to tobacco consumption and spontaneous quitting, while controlling for anxiety symptoms, socio-demographic and smoking-related variables.
Methods: The sample was comprised of 901 Spanish pregnant women. Assessment included an ad hoc questionnaire with socio-demographic and tobacco consumption information, the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and The State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Two multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, respectively to predict tobacco consumption and to predict spontaneous quitting.
Results: Having a partner who smokes (OR=5.578), not having a college education (OR=2.803), higher scores on the EPDS (OR=1.073) and higher scores on the STAI-S (OR=1.027) increase the probability of continuing smoking. Being primiparous (OR=2.463), having a college education (OR=2.141), smoking fewer cigarettes before pregnancy (OR=1.175), and lower scores on the STAI-S (OR=1.045) increase the probability of spontaneously quitting smoking at the first trimester of pregnancy.
Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were a predictor of tobacco consumption but not of spontaneous quitting; spontaneous quitting was better predicted by anxiety symptoms. These findings support recommendations that women with depressive symptoms are at risk for smoking during pregnancy and highlight that anxious symptoms should be targeted in interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy.
Keywords: Pregnancy; Quitters; Smokers; Smoking cessation; Spontaneous quitting; Tobacco consumption.
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