Clinical practice guidelines for prophylaxis of venous thomboembolism in cancer patients

Thromb Haemost. 2016 Sep 27;116(4):618-25. doi: 10.1160/TH16-04-0302. Epub 2016 Aug 25.


Symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs 4-7 times more frequently in cancer patients as compared to non-cancer patients. A significant number of risk factors, which can be subcategorised as patient-, cancer- or treatment-related, have been shown to influence the risk of VTE during malignancy and further incorporated in risk-assessment models. Safe and efficient thromboprophylaxis regimens allow substantial decreased in VTE rates, since VTE is most often a largely preventable disease, but thromboprophylaxis remains underused in cancer compared to non-cancer patients. If thromboprophylaxis is warranted in cancer patients undergoing surgery or hospitalised for acute medical illness or with a lower mobility in the absence of contraindications to anticoagulants, its benefit remains controversial in outpatients and may be limited to locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic or lung cancer treated with chemotherapy. The International Initiative on Thrombosis and Cancer-CME free mobile app (ios and android), based on the International Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG), facilitates their implementation and dissemination of knowledge worldwide so as to improve VTE treatment and prophylaxis in cancer patients.

Keywords: Venous thromboembolism; anticoagulants; current clinical practice guidelines; prophylaxis; risk assessment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / complications*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Venous Thromboembolism / therapy*


  • Anticoagulants