Introduction: Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females.
Materials and methods: 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject.
Results: 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, p<0.0037), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, p<0.001), recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, p<0.001) compared to controls (187.7±28.6). Bulimic patients (197.4±42.7) and constitutional thinness patients (264.3±35.8) were similar to controls.
Conclusions: Low IL-7 is part of the adaptive profile in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7.