Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 9:6:32887. doi: 10.1038/srep32887.


ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines
  • Adult
  • Carrier Proteins / blood*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glycoproteins / blood*
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • PPAR gamma / drug effects
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 / metabolism*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors*


  • AZGP1 protein, human
  • Adipokines
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • PPAR gamma
  • SLC5A2 protein, human
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors