Hispanics/Latinos With Type 2 Diabetes Have Functional and Symptomatic Pulmonary Impairment Mirroring Kidney Microangiopathy: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov;39(11):2051-2057. doi: 10.2337/dc16-1170. Epub 2016 Sep 9.


Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with lung dysfunction, but this association has not been explored in Hispanics/Latinos. The relation between diabetic nephropathy and lung function and symptoms has not been explored.

Research design and methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a large, multicenter, observational study, recruited 16,415 participants aged 18-74 years (14,455 with complete data on variables of interest), between 2008 and 2011 from four U.S. communities through a two-stage area household probability design. Baseline measurements were used for analyses. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and dyspnea score were compared between individuals with and without DM, overall, and stratified by albuminuria. The analyses were performed separately for those with and without preexisting lung disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). Linear regression with sampling weights was used for all analyses.

Results: Among Hispanics/Latinos without lung disease, those with DM had lower mean FEV1 and FVC values and a higher mean dyspnea score than those without DM (mean [95% CI] FEV1 3.00 [2.96-3.04] vs. 3.10 [3.09-3.11] L, P < 0.01; FVC 3.62 [3.59-3.66] vs. 3.81 [3.79-3.83] L, P < 0.001; dyspnea score 0.60 [0.49-0.71] vs. 0.41 [0.34-0.49], P < 0.001). Hispanics/Latinos with DM and macroalbuminuria showed 10% lower FVC (P < 0.001), 6% lower FEV1 (P < 0.001), and 2.5-fold higher dyspnea score (P = 0.04) than those without DM and with normoalbuminuria. Similar findings but with higher impairment in FVC were found in Hispanics/Latinos with lung disease.

Conclusions: Hispanics/Latinos with DM have functional and symptomatic pulmonary impairment that mirror kidney microangiopathy. The progression of pulmonary impairment in adults with DM needs to be investigated further.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / ethnology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / complications
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Insufficiency / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency / ethnology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult