Vascular Diseases of the Spinal Cord: Infarction, Hemorrhage, and Venous Congestive Myelopathy

Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2016 Oct;37(5):466-81. doi: 10.1053/j.sult.2016.05.008. Epub 2016 May 6.


Vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are rare and often overlooked. This article presents clinical and imaging approaches to the diagnosis and management of spinal vascular conditions most commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, aneurysms, and vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are discussed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical classification schemes, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and treatment modalities are considered. Recent advances in genetic and syndromic vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are also discussed. Clinically relevant spinal vascular anatomy is reviewed in detail.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Contrast Media
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Infarction / diagnostic imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Spinal Cord / blood supply*
  • Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging*
  • Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Vascular Diseases / diagnostic imaging*


  • Contrast Media