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Taxonomic Re-Evaluation of Species in Talaromyces Section Islandici, Using a Polyphasic Approach

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Taxonomic Re-Evaluation of Species in Talaromyces Section Islandici, Using a Polyphasic Approach

N Yilmaz et al. Persoonia.

Abstract

The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyrin. They are important in biotechnology (e.g. T. rugulosus, T. wortmannii) and in medicine (e.g. T. piceus, T. radicus). The taxonomy of sect. Islandici was resolved using a combination of morphological, extrolite and phylogenetic data, using the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept, with special focus on the T. rugulosus and T. wortmannii species complexes. In this paper, we synonymise T. variabilis, Penicillium concavorugulosum and T. sublevisporus with T. wortmannii, and introduce four new species as T. acaricola, T. crassus, T. infraolivaceus and T. subaurantiacus. Finally, we provide a synoptic table for the identification of the 19 species classified in the section.

Keywords: Penicillium rugulosum; Penicillium variabile; Talaromyces acaricola; Talaromyces crassus; Talaromyces infraolivaceus; Talaromyces subaurantiacus; multi-gene phylogeny.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Combined phylogenetic tree comparing ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 of species from Talaromyces sect. Islandici. Trichocoma paradoxa was chosen as outgroup. Support in nodes is indicated above thick branches and is represented by posterior probabilities (BI analysis) of 0.95 and higher, and/or bootstrap values (ML analysis) of 80 % and higher. Full support (1.00/100 %) is indicated with an asterisk (*); support lower than 0.95/80 % is indicated with a dash (–). T = ex type.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Phylogenetic trees of the ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 regions of strains in the T. rugulosus complex. Talaromyces tardifaciens was chosen as outgroup. Support in nodes is indicated above thick branches and is represented by posterior probabilities (BI analysis) of 0.95 and higher, and/or bootstrap values (ML analysis) of 80 % and higher. Full support (1.00/100 %) is indicated with an asterisk (*); support lower than 0.95/80 % is indicated with a dash (–). T = ex type. a = ex-type of P. elongatum and P. tardum (CBS 378.48 = NRRL 1073), b = ex-type of P. chrysitis (NRRL 1053) and c = ex-type of P. echinosporum (CBS 344.51). Colours are used to emphasise species in the clade.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Phylogenetic trees of the ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 regions of strains in the T. wortmannii clade. Talaromyces subaurantiacus was chosen as outgroup. Support in nodes is indicated above thick branches and is represented by posterior probabilities (BI analysis) of 0.95 and higher, and/or bootstrap values (ML analysis) of 80 % and higher. Full support (1.00/100 %) is indicated with an asterisk (*); support lower than 0.95/80 % is indicated with a dash (–). T = ex type. Blue = isolates previously identified as T. variabilis; red = isolates previously identified as P. concavorugulosum; green = isolate of T. sublevisporus; purple = isolates previously identified as T. wortmannii and a indicates isolates which produce ascomata.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Talaromyces wortmannii colonies grown on various media at different conditions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Variations of asci and ascospores produced by different species in Talaromyces sect. Islandici. a. Asci of T. rotundus (CBS 369.48T); b. ascospores of T. rotundus (CBS 369.48T); c. asci of T. tratensis (CBS 137401); d. ascospores of T. tratensis (CBS 137401); e. asci of T. tardifaciens (CBS 250.94T); f. ascospores of T. tardifaciens (CBS 250.94T); g. asci of T. wortmannii (CBS 293.53); h. ascospores of T. wortmannii (CBS 293.53); i. asci of T. wortmannii (CBS 137376 = ex-type of T. sublevisporus); j. ascospores of T. wortmannii (CBS 137376 = ex-type of T. sublevisporus).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Morphological characters of Talaromyces acaricola (CBS 137386T). a. Colonies from left to right (top row) CYA, MEA, YES and OA; (bottom row) CYA reverse, MEA reverse, DG18 and CREA; b–f. conidiophores; g. conidia. — Scale bar: f = 10 μm, applies to b–g.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Morphological characters of Talaromyces crassus (CBS 137381). a. Colonies from left to right (top row) CYA, MEA, YES and OA; (bottom row) CYA reverse, MEA reverse, DG18 and CREA; b–f. conidiophores; g. conidia. — Scale bar: f = 10 μm, applies to b–g.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
Morphological characters of Talaromyces infraolivaceus (CBS 137385T). a. Colonies from left to right (top row) CYA, MEA, YES and OA; (bottom row) CYA reverse, MEA reverse, DG18 and CREA; b–f. conidiophores; g. conidia. — Scale bar: f = 10 μm, applies to b–g.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
Morphological characters of Talaromyces subaurantiacus (CBS 137383T) a. Colonies from left to right (top row) CYA, MEA, YES and OA; (bottom row) CYA reverse, MEA reverse, DG18 and CREA; b–g. conidiophores; h. conidia. — Scale bar: g = 10 μm, applies to b–h.

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