A Systematic Review on the Implication of Minerals in the Onset, Severity and Treatment of Periodontal Disease

Molecules. 2016 Sep 7;21(9):1183. doi: 10.3390/molecules21091183.


Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease with high prevalence in adults that leads to destruction of the teeth-supporting tissues. Periodontal therapy has been traditionally directed at reduction of the bacterial load to a level that encourages health-promoting bacteria and maintenance of oral-hygiene. The role of nutrition in different chronic inflammatory diseases has been the subject of an increasing body of research in the last decades. In this sense, there has been an important increase in the volume of research on role of nutrition in periodontitis since the diet has known effects on the immune system and inflammatory cascades. Minerals play a key role in all these processes due to the multiple pathways where they participate. To clarify the role of the different minerals in the establishment, progression and/or treatment of this pathology, a systemically review of published literature cited in PubMed until May 2016 was conducted, which included research on the relationship of these elements with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. Among all the minerals, calcium dietary intake seems important to maintain alveolar bone. Likewise, dietary proportions of minerals that may influence its metabolism also can be relevant. Lastly, some observations suggest that all those minerals with roles in immune and/or antioxidant systems should be considered in future research.

Keywords: calcium; diet; mineral; nutrition; oral health; periodontitis.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alveolar Process* / immunology
  • Alveolar Process* / metabolism
  • Alveolar Process* / pathology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control
  • Minerals / therapeutic use*
  • Oral Health
  • Periodontal Diseases* / immunology
  • Periodontal Diseases* / metabolism
  • Periodontal Diseases* / pathology
  • Periodontal Diseases* / prevention & control


  • Minerals