Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 9 (9), CD011567

Antidepressants and Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults

Affiliations
Review

Antidepressants and Benzodiazepines for Panic Disorder in Adults

Irene Bighelli et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

Abstract

Background: A panic attack is a discrete period of fear or anxiety that has a rapid onset, reaches a peak within 10 minutes and in which at least four of 13 characteristic symptoms are experienced, including racing heart, chest pain, sweating, shaking, dizziness, flushing, stomach churning, faintness and breathlessness. Panic disorder is common in the general population with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. The treatment of panic disorder includes psychological and pharmacological interventions. Amongst pharmacological agents, antidepressants and benzodiazepines are the mainstay of treatment for panic disorder. Different classes of antidepressants have been compared; and the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) consider antidepressants (mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) as the first-line treatment for panic disorder, due to their more favourable adverse effect profile over monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In addition to antidepressants, benzodiazepines are widely prescribed for the treatment of panic disorder.

Objectives: To assess the evidence for the effects of antidepressants and benzodiazepines for panic disorder in adults.

Search methods: The Specialised Register of the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group (CCMDCTR) to 11 September 2015. This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1950-), Embase (1974-) and PsycINFO (1967-). Reference lists of relevant papers and previous systematic reviews were handsearched. We contacted experts in this field for supplemental data.

Selection criteria: All double-blind randomised controlled trials allocating adult patients with panic disorder to antidepressants or benzodiazepines versus any other active treatment with antidepressants or benzodiazepines.

Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently checked eligibility and extracted data using a standard form. Data were entered in RevMan 5.3 using a double-check procedure. Information extracted included study characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention details, settings and outcome measures in terms of efficacy, acceptability and tolerability.

Main results: Thirty-five studies, including 6785 participants overall (of which 5365 in the arms of interest (antidepressant and benzodiazepines as monotherapy)) were included in this review; however, since studies addressed many different comparisons, only a few trials provided data for primary outcomes. We found low-quality evidence suggesting no difference between antidepressants and benzodiazepines in terms of response rate (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.47; participants = 215; studies = 2). Very low-quality evidence suggested a benefit for benzodiazepines compared to antidepressants in terms of dropouts due to any cause, even if confidence interval (CI) ranges from almost no difference to benefit with benzodiazepines (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.63; participants = 1449; studies = 7). We found some evidence suggesting that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are better tolerated than TCAs (when looking at the number of patients experiencing adverse effects). We failed to find clinically significant differences between individual benzodiazepines. The majority of studies did not report details on random sequence generation and allocation concealment; similarly, no details were provided about strategies to ensure blinding. The study protocol was not available for almost all studies so it is difficult to make a judgment on the possibility of outcome reporting bias. Information on adverse effects was very limited.

Authors' conclusions: The identified studies are not sufficient to comprehensively address the objectives of the present review. The majority of studies enrolled a small number of participants and did not provide data for all the outcomes specified in the protocol. For these reasons most of the analyses were underpowered and this limits the overall completeness of evidence. In general, based on the results of the current review, the possible role of antidepressants and benzodiazepines should be assessed by the clinician on an individual basis. The choice of which antidepressant and/or benzodiazepine is prescribed can not be made on the basis of this review only, and should be based on evidence of antidepressants and benzodiazepines efficacy and tolerability, including data from placebo-controlled studies, as a whole. Data on long-term tolerability issues associated with antidepressants and benzodiazepines exposure should also be carefully considered.The present review highlights the need for further higher-quality studies comparing antidepressants with benzodiazepines, which should be conducted with high-methodological standards and including pragmatic outcome measures to provide clinicians with useful and practical data. Data from the present review will be included in a network meta-analysis of psychopharmacological treatment in panic disorder, which will hopefully provide further useful information on this issue.

Conflict of interest statement

IB: none

CT: none

MC: none

AC is supported by the NIHR Oxford Cognitive Health Clinical Research Facility and was expert witness for Accord Healthcare for a patent issue about quetiapine extended release.

FG: none

TAF has received lecture fees from Eli Lilly, Meiji, Mochida, MSD, Otsuka, Pfizer and Tanabe‐Mitsubishi, and consultancy fees from Sekisui Chemicals and Takeda Science Foundation. He has received royalties from Igaku‐Shoin, Seiwa‐Shoten and Nihon Bunka Kagaku‐sha publishers. He has received grant or research support from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japan Foundation for Neuroscience and Mental Health, Mochida and Tanabe‐Mitsubishi. He is a diplomate of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy.

GG: none

MK: none

CB: none.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Study flow diagram.
Figure 2
Figure 2
'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
Figure 3
Figure 3
'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Forest plot of comparison: 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, outcome: 1.1 Failure to respond.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Forest plot of comparison: 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, outcome: 1.2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 1.1
Analysis 1.1
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 1.2
Analysis 1.2
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 1.3
Analysis 1.3
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 1.4
Analysis 1.4
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms ‐ endpoint score.
Analysis 1.5
Analysis 1.5
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 5 Panic symptoms ‐ mean change.
Analysis 1.6
Analysis 1.6
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 6 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 1.7
Analysis 1.7
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 7 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 1.8
Analysis 1.8
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 8 General anxiety.
Analysis 1.9
Analysis 1.9
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 9 Depression.
Analysis 1.10
Analysis 1.10
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 10 Social functioning.
Analysis 1.14
Analysis 1.14
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 14 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 1.15
Analysis 1.15
Comparison 1 Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 15 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 2.1
Analysis 2.1
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 2.2
Analysis 2.2
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 2.3
Analysis 2.3
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 2.4
Analysis 2.4
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms ‐ endpoint score.
Analysis 2.5
Analysis 2.5
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 5 Panic symptoms ‐ mean change.
Analysis 2.6
Analysis 2.6
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 6 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 2.7
Analysis 2.7
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 7 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 2.8
Analysis 2.8
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 8 General anxiety.
Analysis 2.9
Analysis 2.9
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 9 Depression.
Analysis 2.10
Analysis 2.10
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 10 Social functioning.
Analysis 2.14
Analysis 2.14
Comparison 2 TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 14 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 3.1
Analysis 3.1
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 3.2
Analysis 3.2
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 3.3
Analysis 3.3
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 3.4
Analysis 3.4
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 3.5
Analysis 3.5
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 5 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 3.6
Analysis 3.6
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 3.7
Analysis 3.7
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 3.8
Analysis 3.8
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 8 Depression.
Analysis 3.9
Analysis 3.9
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 9 Social functioning.
Analysis 3.13
Analysis 3.13
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 3.14
Analysis 3.14
Comparison 3 SSRIs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 14 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 4.1
Analysis 4.1
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 4.2
Analysis 4.2
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 4.3
Analysis 4.3
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 4.4
Analysis 4.4
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 4.5
Analysis 4.5
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 5 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 4.6
Analysis 4.6
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 4.7
Analysis 4.7
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 7 General anxiety ‐ endpoint score.
Analysis 4.8
Analysis 4.8
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 8 General anxiety ‐ mean change.
Analysis 4.9
Analysis 4.9
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 9 Depression ‐ endpoint score.
Analysis 4.10
Analysis 4.10
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 10 Depression ‐ mean change.
Analysis 4.15
Analysis 4.15
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 15 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 4.16
Analysis 4.16
Comparison 4 TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 16 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 5.1
Analysis 5.1
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 5.2
Analysis 5.2
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 5.4
Analysis 5.4
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 5.5
Analysis 5.5
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 5 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 5.7
Analysis 5.7
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 5.8
Analysis 5.8
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 8 Depression.
Analysis 5.13
Analysis 5.13
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 5.14
Analysis 5.14
Comparison 5 TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 14 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 6.1
Analysis 6.1
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 6.2
Analysis 6.2
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 6.3
Analysis 6.3
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 6.6
Analysis 6.6
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 6.7
Analysis 6.7
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 6.13
Analysis 6.13
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 6.14
Analysis 6.14
Comparison 6 SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 14 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 7.1
Analysis 7.1
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 7.2
Analysis 7.2
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 7.3
Analysis 7.3
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 7.4
Analysis 7.4
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 7.6
Analysis 7.6
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 7.7
Analysis 7.7
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 7.9
Analysis 7.9
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 9 Social functioning.
Analysis 7.10
Analysis 7.10
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 10 Quality of life.
Analysis 7.13
Analysis 7.13
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 7.14
Analysis 7.14
Comparison 7 SSRIs versus SNRIs, Outcome 14 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 8.2
Analysis 8.2
Comparison 8 SSRIs versus NaSSAs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 8.4
Analysis 8.4
Comparison 8 SSRIs versus NaSSAs, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 8.7
Analysis 8.7
Comparison 8 SSRIs versus NaSSAs, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 8.13
Analysis 8.13
Comparison 8 SSRIs versus NaSSAs, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 9.1
Analysis 9.1
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 9.2
Analysis 9.2
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 9.6
Analysis 9.6
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 9.7
Analysis 9.7
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 9.8
Analysis 9.8
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 8 Depression.
Analysis 9.13
Analysis 9.13
Comparison 9 SSRIs versus Other Antidepressants, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 10.1
Analysis 10.1
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 10.2
Analysis 10.2
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 10.3
Analysis 10.3
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 10.4
Analysis 10.4
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 10.5
Analysis 10.5
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 5 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 10.6
Analysis 10.6
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 6 Agoraphobia.
Analysis 10.7
Analysis 10.7
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 10.8
Analysis 10.8
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 8 Depression.
Analysis 10.10
Analysis 10.10
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 10 Quality of life.
Analysis 10.13
Analysis 10.13
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 10.14
Analysis 10.14
Comparison 10 Individual Antidepressants versus another antidepressant within the same class, Outcome 14 Number of patients experiencing at least one adverse effect.
Analysis 11.1
Analysis 11.1
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 11.2
Analysis 11.2
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 11.3
Analysis 11.3
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 3 Failure to remit.
Analysis 11.4
Analysis 11.4
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 4 Panic symptoms.
Analysis 11.5
Analysis 11.5
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 5 Frequency of panic attacks.
Analysis 11.7
Analysis 11.7
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 7 General anxiety.
Analysis 11.8
Analysis 11.8
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 8 Depression.
Analysis 11.9
Analysis 11.9
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 9 Social functioning.
Analysis 11.10
Analysis 11.10
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 10 Quality of life.
Analysis 11.13
Analysis 11.13
Comparison 11 Individual benzodiazepines versus another benzodiazepine, Outcome 13 Number of dropouts due to adverse effects.
Analysis 12.1
Analysis 12.1
Comparison 12 High risk of bias excluded ‐ Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 13.1
Analysis 13.1
Comparison 13 High risk of bias excluded ‐ TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 14.1
Analysis 14.1
Comparison 14 High risk of bias excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 15.1
Analysis 15.1
Comparison 15 High risk of bias excluded ‐ TCAs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 16.1
Analysis 16.1
Comparison 16 High risk of bias excluded ‐ SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 17.1
Analysis 17.1
Comparison 17 High dropout rates excluded ‐ Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 18.1
Analysis 18.1
Comparison 18 High dropout rates excluded ‐ TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 19.1
Analysis 19.1
Comparison 19 High dropout rates excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 19.2
Analysis 19.2
Comparison 19 High dropout rates excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 20.1
Analysis 20.1
Comparison 20 Funded excluded ‐ Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 21.1
Analysis 21.1
Comparison 21 Funded excluded ‐ TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 22.1
Analysis 22.1
Comparison 22 Funded excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 22.2
Analysis 22.2
Comparison 22 Funded excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 23.1
Analysis 23.1
Comparison 23 Funded excluded ‐ SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 24.1
Analysis 24.1
Comparison 24 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 24.2
Analysis 24.2
Comparison 24 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ Antidepressants versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 25.1
Analysis 25.1
Comparison 25 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ TCAs versus benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 26.1
Analysis 26.1
Comparison 26 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 26.2
Analysis 26.2
Comparison 26 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 27.1
Analysis 27.1
Comparison 27 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 27.2
Analysis 27.2
Comparison 27 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 28.1
Analysis 28.1
Comparison 28 Psychiatric comorbidities excluded ‐ Individual benzodiazepines versus individual benzodiazepines, Outcome 1 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 29.1
Analysis 29.1
Comparison 29 Imputation excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 29.2
Analysis 29.2
Comparison 29 Imputation excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 30.1
Analysis 30.1
Comparison 30 Imputation excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 30.2
Analysis 30.2
Comparison 30 Imputation excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 31.1
Analysis 31.1
Comparison 31 Irregular benzodiazepines use excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 31.2
Analysis 31.2
Comparison 31 Irregular benzodiazepines use excluded ‐ TCAs versus SSRIs, Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.
Analysis 32.1
Analysis 32.1
Comparison 32 Irregular benzodiazepines use excluded ‐ SSRIs versus MAOIs, Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 33.1
Analysis 33.1
Comparison 33 Irregular benzodiazepines use excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 1 Failure to respond.
Analysis 33.2
Analysis 33.2
Comparison 33 Irregular benzodiazepines use excluded ‐ Individual antidepressants versus individual antidepressants (within the same class), Outcome 2 Total number of dropouts.

Update of

  • Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011567

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 7 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback