To identify antenatal and intrapartum risk factors associated with seizures in term newborns, 40 infants who had seizures within 72 hours of birth were compared with 400 controls using logistic regression analysis. The risk of seizure in the term newborn was approximately one per 1000 in the population studied. The logistic regression model identified a group of infants in whom the risk of seizure was approximately one per 100. The risk factors included in the model were antepartum anemia, antepartum bleeding, asthma, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, presentation other than occiput anterior, fetal distress, and shoulder dystocia. Consistent with other studies, our analysis confirmed a strong association between seizures and factors that increase the risk of fetal asphyxia.