Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information

Br J Psychol. 2017 Aug;108(3):544-563. doi: 10.1111/bjop.12214. Epub 2016 Sep 13.


The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning.

Keywords: cued recall; judgement of learning; learning style.

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Adolescent
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Cues
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Judgment / physiology*
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Mental Recall / physiology
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult