Contraceptive use and pregnancy intentions among transgender men presenting to a clinic for sex workers and their families in San Francisco

Contraception. 2017 Feb;95(2):186-189. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2016.09.005. Epub 2016 Sep 9.


Purpose: Although many transgender men may be able to conceive, their reproductive health needs are understudied.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of transgender men presenting to a clinic for sex workers to describe the proportion at risk for pregnancy, pregnancy intentions, and contraceptive use.

Results: Of 26 transgender men identified, half were at risk for pregnancy. Most desired to avoid pregnancy but used only condoms or no contraception. Two individuals desired pregnancy, were taking testosterone (a teratogen), and not using contraception.

Conclusion: Further research is needed to explore how to best provide family planning services including preconception and contraception care to transgender men.

Keywords: Contraception; Family planning; Female-to-male; Reproductive health; Testosterone; Transgender.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Condoms
  • Contraception
  • Contraception Behavior*
  • Family Planning Services
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Preconception Care
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproductive Health
  • San Francisco
  • Sex Workers*
  • Teratogens
  • Testosterone / administration & dosage
  • Testosterone / adverse effects
  • Transgender Persons*


  • Teratogens
  • Testosterone