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. 2016 Aug 29;7:350.
doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00350. eCollection 2016.

Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

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Free PMC article

Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

Li Zuo et al. Front Physiol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals.

Methods: The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance).

Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

Keywords: arterial compliance; cholesterol; lipids; weight loss; weight relapse.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic illustrating the experiment timeline comprised of a 12-week WL (phase 1), followed by a 52-week WL-M (phase 2). HP-IF-LC, high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie; HH diet, heart healthy diet; WL, weight loss; WL-M, weight loss maintenance.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Dietary effects on BMI during phase 1 (A) and phase 2 (B) collapsed across genders. (A) Effect of 12 week HP-IF-LC intervention (Phase 1) on BMI (n = 40). (B) Percent change in BMI between HP-IF and HH groups during Phase 2 (n = 24). ***Significant difference compared to baseline (p < 0.001). *Trend for significant difference compared to HH group (p = 0.069). BMI, body mass index; HP-IF, high-protein, intermittent fasting; HH, heart healthy.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of 12 week HP-IF-LC intervention (Phase 1) on (A) triglycerides, (B) LDL, (C) total cholesterol, (D) total cholesterol/HDL ratio of males and females. Significant difference compared to baseline of the same gender indicated by: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. LDL, low-density-lipoprotein; HDL, high-density-lipoprotein.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of 12 week HP-IF-LC intervention (Phase 1) on (A) BMI, (B) heart rate, (C) systolic blood pressure, (D) diastolic blood pressure, (E) PWVao, (F) return time (the time intervals between peaks from the early direct and reflected late systolic waves), (G) BAIX, and (H) CAIX of males and females. Significant difference compared to baseline of the same gender indicated by: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. BMI, body mass index; PWVao, aortic pulse wave velocity; BAIX, brachial augmentation index; CAIX, central augmentation index.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Percent changes in (A) triglycerides, (B) LDL, (C) HDL, (D) non HDL lipids, (E) total cholesterol, and (F) total cholesterol/HDL ratio between the HP-IF and HH groups following Phase 2 (52 weeks). HP-IF, high-protein, intermittent fasting; HH, heart healthy; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density-lipoprotein.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Percent changes in (A) PWVao, (B) return time (the time intervals between peaks from the early direct and reflected late systolic waves), (C) BAIX, and (D) CAIX between the HP-IF and HH groups following Phase 2 (52 weeks). *Significant difference from the HH group (p = 0.045), as assessed by repeated-measures ANOVA. PWVao, aortic pulse wave velocity; HP-IF, high-protein, intermittent fasting; HH, heart healthy; BAIX, brachial augmentation index; CAIX, central augmentation index.

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