Purpose: Spinal arteriovenous malformations (SAVMs) are rare events. This study evaluated initial clinical presentations and treatment outcomes of SAVMs.
Methods: In this study, 91 consecutive patients with SAVM between January 1993 and November 2014 were evaluated. Initial clinical presentations, radiological findings, treatment results, and follow-up outcomes were evaluated according to disease type and treatment modalities. Patient status was scored using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and Aminoff-Logue Disability scale (ALS).
Results: Of the SAVM patients 69 % were male and 31 % were female with a mean age of 49 years (range 11-82 years). At the time of initial imaging evaluation, myelopathy was the most common finding with main complaints of gait disturbance (69 out of 91, 76 %), sensory disturbances (61/91, 67 %), and bowel or bladder symptoms (51/91, 56 %). Among the 80 patients who received treatment 56 (62 %) underwent endovascular embolization and 24 (26 %) underwent surgery. Complete obliteration was achieved in 47 patients (84 %) after endovascular embolization and in 18 (75 %) after surgical ligation. At the time of final follow-up 67 patients (84 %) showed improvement of more than 1 point on the mRS, while 69 (86 %) showed significant improvement on the ALS after treatment.
Conclusion: The SAVMs presented with diverse neurological deficits, including myelopathy. Endovascular or surgical treatment of SAVMs can result in good clinical outcomes in most patients.
Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation; Embolization; Myelopathy; Outcome; Spine.