A large 15 - year database analysis on the influence of age, gender, race, obesity and income on hospitalization rates due to stone disease

Int Braz J Urol. Nov-Dec 2016;42(6):1150-1159. doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2015.0743.


Purpose: To assess the public hospitalization rate due to stone disease in a large developing nation for a 15-year period and its association with socio-demographic data.

Materials and methods: A retrospective database analysis of hospitalization rates in the Brazilian public health system was performed, searching for records with a diagnosis code of renal/ureteral calculi at admission between 1998-2012. Patients managed in an outpatient basis or private care were excluded. Socio-demographic data was attained and a temporal trend analysis was performed.

Results: The number of stone-related hospitalizations increased from 15.7%, although the population-adjusted hospitalization rate remained constant in 0.04%. Male:female proportion among hospitalized patients was stable (49.3%:50.7% in 1998; 49.2%:50.8% in 2012), though there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of male hospitalizations (-3.8%;p=0.041). In 2012, 38% of hospitalized patients due to stone disease had 40-59 years-old. The ≥80 years-old strata showed the most significant decrease (-43.44%;p=0.022), followed by the 20-39 (-23.17%;p < 0.001) and 0-19 years-old cohorts (-16.73%;p=0.012). Overall, the lowest relative hospitalization rates were found for yellow and indigenous individuals. The number of overweight/obese individuals increased significantly (+20.6%), accompanied by a +43.6% augment in the per capita income. A significant correlation was found only between income and obesity (R=0.64;p=0.017).

Conclusions: The prevalence of stone disease requiring hospitalization in Brazil remains stable, with a balanced proportion between males and females. There is trend for decreased hospitalization rates of male, < 40 and ≥80 years-old individuals. Obesity and income have a more pronounced correlation with each other than with stone disease.

Keywords: Disease; Kidney Calculi; Urolithiasis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Female
  • Geography
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Infant
  • Kidney Calculi / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Ureteral Calculi / epidemiology
  • Urolithiasis / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult